Packrafting Quick Guide

See also: 
Packrafting Gear Essentials

Prices have converged but akes you think, doesn’t it

More and more outdoorsy people are beginning to realise that packrafting is a great way of getting on the water in a light, portable, stable and easy-to-paddle mini-raft. A 3-kilo packraft like the yellow Alpacka Yak, left, may resemble the cheap PVC beach toy below, but it’s the durable TPU fabric and solid construction that sets them far apart. This enables higher pressures which adds up to better rigidity: the key to enjoying a paddling experience you won’t get close to in a SeaHawk or similar.
It’s a whole new way of exploring and enjoying the watery wilderness. There’s more here on the origins of packrafting; it’s older than you think. In the UK the lochs and rivers of the Scottish Highlands are especially well suited to extended overnight treks with packrafts. 

Falling out of a packraft; harder than it looks

The clue’s in the name: you can pack up your raft in minutes, hike with it for hours or days, redeploying at the water’s edge and paddling onwards. You don’t need any special skills to paddle one on calm water, but as with all paddle craft, wear buoyancy aids and consider currents, rapids, weirs, tides, irate swordfish and especially winds to which light, high-sided packrafts are especially prone. Note also that unlike an IK, most packrafts have only one air chamber and when it goes (very rare) it’s gone.

For years Alpacka Rafts‘ comprehensive and innovative range (left) was miles ahead. My first three packrafts were all Alpackas but now there are over a score of equally effective alternatives on the market, most produced by a couple of Chinese factories, then customised, rebranded and sold in the West under various names, now including Decathlon’s Itiwit brand.
A few, mostly heavier PVC models, are made in Eastern Europe where there is a long history of PVC boat manufacture. In the US, Kokopelli now also make PVC packrafts alongside TPU, some weighing nearly 9kg/20lbs which is as much as a small IK. They paddle just the same and may well pump up stiffer, but weigh more, are less pliant and more bulky when rolled up.

At the other extreme are ultralight packrafts like the Supai or Anfibio Nano, made of thin 75D coated nylon or polyester, like your cag, tent or rucksack. This makes for very light and compact boats, but on the water they can be quite mushy, unresponsive and not so enjoyable to paddle. See ‘Crossrafts’, below.
Overall, I’ve found that there’s a good reason why TPU remains the most widely used fabric for packrafts: it’s soft and supple; pumps up firm on the water (with hand pumping), is durable and more resistant to UV than PVC, plus is easy to repair and compact to roll up.

slackers

Don’t be put off by Chinese-made packrafts (which use TPU). Those I’ve seen and used and owned are as durable and well made as an Alpacka.
Even if things have moved on a whole lot since, back in 2015 we tested four packrafts from MRS, Aire, Nortik and Supai alongside my 2014 Alpacka Yak (click this for the summary).
And don’t forget that at any waterside holiday resort you can buy cheap PVC beach toys (left) costing from 10% of the cheapest packraft and which are OK while they last (can be hours or days). I call these Slackrafts and they get their own page on IK&P.

Loch Hourn
3fibs

Slackrafts were a great way of investigating the packrafting experience, but now that proper packraft prices have dropped and brands mushroomed, you might prefer to save on the PVC landfill and go straight to the real thing.
Read about the Anfibio Alpha XC, Nano RTC and Rebel 2K, the ROBfin and Longshore International’s EX280 double, as well as my own Alpackas and MRS Nomad.
As for speed, on flatwater packrafts are slow though one time I took a 12-km run along the slow moving Medway River in Kent and averaged 3.4mph or 5.5kph. More recently in France I averaged over 7kph, but an overnight storm made current was good that day. I’ve reached similar speeds sailing in strong winds on Scottish lochs but on flatwater or slow rivers no packraft is an especially engaging thing to paddle. For that you want a kayak. It’s more about where a packraft can get you: places that heavier and bulkier IKs, far less hardshells, cannot reach.
Although they’re durable, packrafts are still very light and expensive inflatable boats at risk to damage from sharp objects. Such damage usually occurs during transportation rather than on the water. Though it’s never happened to me, field repairs are part of ownership – more so than quality IKs – but can be done in a couple of minutes with tape, or over a few hours with Stormsure or Aquaseal sealant.

Me and my packrafts
In 2010 I bought a first-generation Alpacka Denali Llama (below left) with what became known as a zip-off ‘Cruiser’ deck. I’d never seen anything like it and back then, expensive American-made Alpackas were the only game in town. I sold that to Alastair Humphreys (it’s featured here and probably in his MicroAdventures book) and in 2011 I got an all-yellow Yak with the innovative and now much copied extended pointy stern.

I did loads with that boat: Utah, northwest ScotlandFrance and the remote Fitzroy river in northern Australia. I’ve also tried surfingdisc sailing, bikerafting, and urban packrafting. In 2014 I downscaled to a simpler, lighter blue-and-yellow Yak which I used on the Lycean Way in Turkey (below left), as well as a couple more visits to southern France.
In 2019 I sold that and bought a bigger, MRS Nomad S1 ‘pakayak’ which I paddled in New Zealand as well as my usual places and London’s Regents Canal. The Nomad went, and in 2021 I got myself an Anfibio Rebel 2K which I’ve so far used on the Wye and in Scotland’s Knoydart alongside a mate in his Nomad S1.

Packrafting adventures
With a big backpack you can carry the boat, camping gear and several days of food on your back. At the water’s edge you inflate, secure your pack over the bow (or inside the hull) and paddle off along rivers or across lakes. At the other end deflate, roll it up and carry on trekking. It’s not my thing but a packraft also makes an agile white water boat (below) which, with a deck, will manage rapids as gnarly as you’d dare.

Airbagging

Just like IKs, packrafts bounce off rocks and are much more stable than regular hardshell kayaks. They can even be eskimo rolled with suitable thigh straps. In all the time I’ve used them I’ve never had a puncture, not would expect one with careful use.
Unlike a full-sized raft, there’s no need for a bulky pump; you can inflate by scrunching a featherlight airbag attached to a port or valve on the boat, as above left. Then you top off by mouth: the firmer the boat the better it rides.
For those who don’t have lungs like Tarzan, after airbagging you can use a light and compact mini handpump (below left) to top up and get the boat good and firm. Lately, I’ve also been using a USB rechargable minipump (Below right). It’s actually no faster than a well-deployed airbag and the boat still needs topping up with a mini handpump, but you can do other stuff while it fills.

Inflation Valves
Originally, a simple cap screwed into a threaded port in the hull, like a bottle top. With the easily lost cap removed, you attached an airbag and inflated, then undid the airbag and quickly tried to screw the cap back on before too much air was lost. Then you topped up by mouth, using the separate twist-and-lock elbow valve.

Then in the US, NRS were among the first to adopt clever and simple one-way Boston valves (above right) to a packraft. Otherwise crumby Slackrafts had used these for years which made people assume they must be rubbish, but today most packrafts feature Boston valves which are well suited to low-pressure inflatables like packrafts. The one-way rubber mushroom valve in the valve body means a separate elbow top-off valve can be ditched, making one less thing to break, leak or assemble. And because the valve body can be unscrewed (while still attached remaining attached to the boat), the packraft can be quickly and fully deflated.
Bending over backwards to be different, after an early misstep, Alpacka developed their own switchable valve which takes more effort to inflate and fully deflate, and looks like it won’t work with a push-on electric pump. Similarly, Kokopelli also from the US choose to use OTT Leafield D7 ‘raft valves’ on their packrafts which need a separate oral inflation tube (or a K-Pump) to top the boat off.

Cooling off a packraft prior to topping up

Firm boats paddle better but like IKs, a packraft that’s been fully inflated with ambient air will go soft once cooled in the water, so will need more topping up. ‘Tempering’, they call it. Put the boat in the water, splash water over it (left); it will go a bit soft because the air inside has cooled down and contracted. Top up some more. The red handpump up above left has a long hose which means you can top up a push-fit Boston valved boat on the water, if needed.
A good packraft should hold air for days at a time, but it’s better not to leave it fully inflated in the hot sun. Just as an inflatable put in cold water goes soft, left in the hot sun air inside heats up and expands, pressures rise and the seams get strained, though a packraft is unlikely to rip apart, as an IK can do.

Decks
Not being into technical whitewater, I’ve always preferred open IKs & Ps, wearing a drysuit if getting cold and wet might be an issue. But knowing little about packrafts, I ordered my first Alpacka in 2010 with what they later designated the Cruiser spray deck (below left). It could be rolled up out of the way, or even zipped and velcro’d right off. It included a little inflatable ‘codpiece’ to help shed water, as well as the all-important ‘ripcord’ on the left to quickly pull the deck back should you need to bail out in a hurry. (Note the blue grab handle I added to mine to make this easier; I never needed to use it).
It was nice to have the option but my Alpacka Cruiser deck looked a bit flimsy and I rarely used it. As it was, I never paddled in conditions that really required it, plus I’ve never liked the hemmed-in feeling of any paddle-boat deck.

Cruiser decks are now widely copied by other packraft brands, but they were never intended to be fully effective in technical white water (Grade 3 and above). They’re just a handy way of keeping you warm and largely dry in splashy conditions which is all that the majority of paddlers ask for.
Anfibio now have what you might call a permanently fitted ‘Cruiser’ deck on the Rebel 2K which uses a curved zip and rolls up to either side. Unless it’s very warm, I now find I use the deck most of the time. I must be getting older.
All Cruiser-like decks feature an integrated torso tube or tunnel (above right) with velcro up the side to help keep water out. They work OK, but water will pass through the velcro. For safety’s sake (ie: quick removal), pull this tube over the outside of your buoyancy aid, even if heavy rain might run down inside, the tube tends to sag down and access to you pfd pockets is reduced. A cinch cord at the top helps reduce sagging.

Another Alpacka innovation, also widely copied, was a permanently fitted whitewater deck incorporating a large rimmed hatch (‘coaming’) to take a regular, stretchy neoprene kayak spray skirt, as above left and the Vimeo above. Such boats are well suited to technical white water, surfing and even rolling. As on a hardshell kayak, to bail out you yank back your spray skirt with the grab loop up front.
On any decked paddle boat, familiarise yourself with the action of quickly removing your skirt or pulling back the deck, before you need to do so in a panic.

Paddles
For a portable boat you’ll want a compact four-part paddle which ought to weigh under a kilo. I’ve used Aqua Bound’s Manta Ray 220 for over a decade but there are a loads out there now. Anfibio’s Wave is a very good value four-parter with length and blade angle adjustment. Click the link for more.

In-hull storage
Originally, most lashed overnight gear over the bow, as below left. With weight up front the boat actually yawed less and, being one-chamber boats, something like a submersible (non roll-top) Watershed UDB gave emergency back-up buoyancy when all was lost.
Then Alpacka introduced a now much-copied waterproof zip in the stern called the Cargo Fly which enabled you to store gear inside the hull tube. For white water it offered better visibility and stability than a backpack over the bow, even if an external bag is easier to demount for longer portages.
The zip obviously needs to be kept very clean and well lubed, and these TiZips have been subject to warranty claims and still can have leakage issues from the side fabric, not the actual zipper mechanism, possibly if not dried properly which allows fabric-eating fungus to take hold. They can’t be any worse than TiZips in dry suits, but those are under no pressure and aren’t critical to your buoyancy. Since then, the zips must have have become more reliable as many other packraft brands now use the idea. It may be worth pre-emptively coating with anti-fungal spray.

Another clever means of in-hull storage are big compartments fitted into the side tubes, as on Anfibio’s Rebel 2K which has two 70-litre Tube Bags. Like the pockets in your jeans, it means there’s no direct zip link into the hull chamber which makes the zip seal on the outside is a little less critical. Besides the portage limitations (actually, not so bad I’ve found) it’s a bit of a hassle having to re-inflate the boat every day, but on the water the benefits are clear, including having no gear visible when away from the boat.
Another way of doing it is a roll-top hull closure imitating a dry bag. In 2020 Anfibio Packrafting’s Nano RTC did just that, but I think Tube Bags are a better solution for touring.

Crossrafts
This term seems to have slipped from usage, but defines a sub-category of packrafts: very light boats with no decks and made from nylon or polyester with the non-porous PU coating inside, like your tent or backpack, as opposed to the more durable shiny exterior coating of TPU.
They’re best suited for crossing or navigating calm bodies of water rather than paddling along them, far less tackling white water, though this doesn’t stop people trying. 
The low prices and light fabric enables incredible weights of a kilo or less, creating a much needed link between slackrafts and packrafts. Because of the thin fabric, you lose out on durability, as well as the performance and response of stiffer TPU hulls like an Alpha XC which still weighs less than 2kg.

As the name suggests, the 670g Supai Flatwater II is an ultra-light crossraft suited to small lochs, canyoneering or following calm rivers. With its narrowed and tapered bow, it resembles the much admired Sevylor Trail Boat – the Lost Prince of Slackrafts. We tried one and a couple of years later tried the fatter Matkat version.
More recently, Anfibio’s Nano RTC has a roll-up closure which enables stuff to be stored inside and weighs barely over a kilo.

Bikerafting
With a packraft you can strap a bicycle over the bow and bikeraft. All because a packraft is exceedingly light but very buoyant and stable and, being made of durable fabric, won’t burst on encountering a sharp noise.

Tandem packrafts
Yes they make those too; a great way of getting two on the water in a lightweight boat. Just make sure the front paddler has a proper backrest. Read about our test of the Longshore 280EX.

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